The Desert Peace of Westphalia

To some surprise, 1648 did mark the end of the war. On January 30th the Netherlands and Spain concluded the Peace of Münster, ending their almost eighty year old war. It’s hard to understate how strange that must have been for everyone involved, and the treaty’s signing helped speed the end for the rest of […]

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The End of the Thirty Years’ War

The situation in the field continued to turn badly for Ferdinand as 1645 wore on. Their Danish detour concluded, the Swedes decided Bohemia and Ferdinand’s other personal lands looked appetizing. Once upon a time Sweden’s arrival would have been hailed as the liberation, but that would have been fifteen years ago. Bohemia in 1645 was […]

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